E-GOVERNANCE

E-Governance Apr 25, 2022
What is e-Governance | e-Governance in india

By – Shivansh Gupta

INTRODUCTION

When we talk about India, around 65 % of the population belongs to rural areas. Due to the lack of facilities, it is unacceptable for rural folks to access the most recent technologies. Also, it is relatively impossible for the Government to achieve every subject of the country. In the last few years, the Government has introduced various policies to improve the delivery of public services at multiple levels. However, for the Government to become successful, people's participation is a must as public participation allows leaders and bureaucrats to perform efficiently, much needed for democracy.

Therefore, technological involvement is necessary in such a case, and E-Governance's introduction has solved this problem to a great extent. It is continuously helping to bridge the gap between the public and the Government and has opened new avenues for growth and development.

INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) -

E-Governance includes the application of ICT in enhancing the Government's ability to address the needs of its people in a convenient, efficient, and transparent manner.

Like the use of ICT for elections, census, computerizing all the government offices, digital lockers like e-panchayat, Jeevan Praman programme, and e-Seva Kendra.

100% benefit transfer has been achieved by implementing Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT). The JAM model was introduced, which involves the integration of Jan Dhan Yojana, Aadhar, and mobile technology and has enabled the Government to implement DBT on a large scale.

TECHNOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS

Here we will discuss the applications of e-governance - Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Internet of Things (IoT).

  • AI and Analytics

With the help of AI and analytic techniques, it enables the Government to harness data about citizens and their behavior based on their interactions with different government agencies and digital sites to offer citizens personalized public services and keep an eye on policy decisions. Also, it helps the Government make forecasts and predict future trends, select various policy options, and determine the consequences before policy implementation.

According to a report by the National Institution for Transforming India (NITI Aayog), AI can transform India's nucleus – healthcare, agriculture, education, smart cities and infrastructure, and smart mobility and transportation.

Let us look at a few examples of applications of AI in India –

Crowd Management- The best example of this is that AI & Analytics was used in the Kumbh Mela. Its purpose was to predict crowd behavior and any possibility of panic and people running. About 20 crore devotees attended the Kumbh Mela. It analyzed feeds from over 1,000 CCTV cameras and monitored various movements across the area spread across 3,200 hectares. AI & Analytics was used by the Uttar Pradesh State Government's integrated command and control center of the police. The security officers could see the visuals of crowd movement, assess the crowd size, and monitor any suspicious activity.

Agriculture: AI & Analytics technologies have enough potential to create wealth and jobs in rural India. Various technologies like weather prediction, intelligent environment control, intelligent driverless tractors, and drones will help the farmers enhance their crops' quality. AI & Analytics technologies can transform agriculture in India to raise farm productivity and create a new opportunity for farmers. These technologies can also be used to advise farmers which crops to grow and the right amount of fertilizer to use, making agriculture very precise.

  • INTERNET OF THINGS (IoT) AND GOVERNANCE OF SMART CITIES
smart city: Opinion: Why Smart Cities will evolve into hyper-connected  cities, Government News, ET Government

An important application: The Internet of Things (IoT) involves a system of computing devices or sensors connected. They collect and transfer data over a network. Another application then collects and analyses this data and makes an action based on the analysis.

One of the best examples is a temperature sensor that measures the ambient temperature in a place and sends this data to a back-end server. When the ambient temperature crosses a set threshold, an alarm is sounded. Here, temperature sensor – IoT device, ambient temp – data, crossing the threshold – data analysis and sounding of alarm – action.

One of the significant applications of IoT in governance is that of Smart City. This requires a wide spreading of IoT sensors across the city, which provide real-time data on the happenings in the city, and then a central system analyzes the data. Thus cities can be governed more efficiently. As mentioned in India's IoT Policy, some key aspects of a smart city include Smart parking, Intelligent transport system, Tele-care, Woman Safety, Smart grids, Smart urban lighting, Waste management, Smart city maintenance, Digital-signage, and Water Management.

CHALLENGES

According to the UN e-Government Survey, India has slipped from 96th position in 2018 to 100th in 2020, indicating various challenges our country faces.

SECRECY AND SAFETY - A major drawback in implementing e-governance is the secrecy and safety of an individual's knowledge that he/she provides to gain government services. Due to a lack of safety standards, in the past, cyber hackers have hacked people's private information and misused them.

LACK OF AWARENESS - Most people in rural India are not aware of the advantages of e-government services. Due to the large population in India, the Government cannot pay additional attention to form the folks' awareness of e-Governance.

LITERACY RATE - In various places in our country, the literacy rate is meager. Rural folks are not technically literate to use the technology. The Government has launched various e-Governance services to develop rural India due to a lack of technical knowledge and low IT attainment. They are incapable of utilizing such facilities and accessing websites.

LOW COST AND GDP - Cost is vital in implementing e-Governance in India. The majority of individuals reside below personal income in rural India. Also, the GDP per capita income of India is low. As a result, people cannot afford online services provided by the Government, which is a significant challenge for the implementation of e-Governance.

E-Governance seems to provide seamless access to data and knowledge across the state and central government. No country has thus far implemented an associate e-Governance system for one billion folks. It is an enormous challenge for us.

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